Many important men have crossed the Chinese historical stage during the last 5,000 years. One of the most important was to be known later as Emperor QinShihuang, the first emperor in Chinese history. Born the son of King ZhangXiang, the King of Qin, in the first month of the lunar year in 259 BC, he was first named ZhaoZheng and later his name was changed to YingZheng. YingZheng's mother was a beautiful concubine of LuBuwei, a merchant who the king had met while he was hostage in the nearby State of Zhao, prior to ascending the throne. In 247 BC, when YingZheng was only 13 years old, his father died and he ascended the throne as the King of Qin. Being too young to handle the affairs of the State, LuBuwei served as his regent and the prime Minster, together with YingZheng's mother, the Queen, administered the State of Qin. At the age of 22, Yingzheng took over the reigns of the government himself. The first decision that he made was to put down a rebellion, which was led by LaoAi, a servant who had become intimate with the Queen. The following year, the young king removed his former regent LuBuwei and exiled him to SiChuan where he later committed suicide. Having all of his civil affairs in order, the king began the task of conquering the six other states: Qi, Chu, Yan, Han, Zhao and Wei in 230 BC. Finally, in 221 BC, the King of Qin achieved his Victory and unified the Qin Empire. His territory extended from the sea in the south and east, LinTao In the west and finally to Mount Yin and the area of LiaoDong in the north. It was at this time, at the age of 39 that the King of Qin declared himself to be "QinShiHuangDi", the first emperor of Qin. Feudal separation that had lasted since the Spring and Autumn Periods had finally come to an end. In order to consolidate his rule, Emperor Qin instituted a series of new policies. Probably his greatest contribution to the practice of government in China was his establishment of the centralized state and abolition of the feudal system. He divided the country into 36 prefectures that were further broken down into counties, townships, "Tings" and "Lis". He appointed twelve ministers who helped him make decisions on state affairs. By appointing the ministers directly, Emperor Qin had all the powers of the State in his hands.
To further unify the country, Emperor Qin standardized the system of weight and measures, handwriting into small Seal Script and then went on to regulate the width of carriage axles to six feet. All these measures helped to establish a high centralization of politics, economy, military affairs and culture. In a further attempt to control and protect his ideological policies, Emperor Qin destroyed many ancient records and burned Confucian scholars to be killed by the Wei River and another 700 scholars buried alive at the foot of Mount Li.
In order to have the social situation under control, he spent a lot of time reading reports from all parts of the country. He even had the documents weighed (Writings were inscribed on bamboo or wood at that time) every morning and night, and would not rest till a certain weight had passed through his hands.
Ensuring the security of his new empire was a major concern of Emperor Qin. An imperial road network on an unprecedented scale was ordered to build and a highway was opened straight through Capital XianYang to the northern border. He used to have his five tours of inspection on such an imperial route to far-flung corners of his domain. Stone memorial tablets with inscriptions were erected wherever he went for leaving Emperor's merits and virtues, ordering his people to abide by the law of the State of Qin. Undoubtedly the First Emperor's greatest and most impressive achievement is the defensive walls previously built by different states in the Warring States Period. He appointed General MengTian as commander-in-chief of the Imperial forces who had already distinguished himself in subduing the Xiong-nu Tartars in the far north and northwest, with the task of building the wall. Thus came into the Great Wall of China, one of the wonders in the world. A huge labor force was organized to complete this construction. Moreover, Emperor Qin sent his army to guard five mountains in southern part of China and ordered the Lin Canal to construct. All these measures played such an active role in establishing a unified country-Qin State.